Back Piasecki H-21 Workhorse / Shawnee
1952

Piasecki H-21C

From the all-metal PV-17 built in 1948, the following year Piasecki derived the HRP-2 Rescuer and an improved version of the Rescuer, the H-21 Workhorse. The USAF acquired 214 of the latter, and 334 of a similar model, the H-21 Shawnee, were built for the US Army. The B and C variants of the H-21 were used in Vietnam, equipped with 12.7 or 7.62mm light machine guns which were fired through the cabin doors. The H-21 used the classic single engine formula with tandem three-blade rotors. While the Navy's helicopters had a 600hp Pratt & Whitney R-1340 engine, those for the Army had a Wright R-1820. Thirty-three of the H-21A were assigned to SAR units in the Arctic and another five were sent to Canada. Foreign operators of the H-21 included the German Army (26), French Army (98), French Navy (10), Japanese armed forces (10) and Swedish Navy (11).

G.Apostolo "The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Helicopters", 1984

Vertol CH-21C "Shawnee"

Developed from the US Navy's HRP-2, the Piasecki PD-22 tandem-rotor helicopter prototype (US Air Force designation XH-21) was first flown on 11 April 1952. Eighteen YH-21 helicopters had been ordered in 1949 for USAF evaluation, these being followed by an initial production batch of 32 H-21A helicopters, named Workhorse in USAF service. For use by the Military Air Transport Service Air Rescue Service, the H-21As were each powered by a derated 932kW Wright R-1820-103 engine; the first flew in October 1953. Six more were built to USAF contract but supplied to Canada under the Military Assistance Program.

The second production variant was the H-21B, which used the full power of the 1063kW R-1820-103 to cover an increase in maximum take-off weight from 5216kg to 6804kg. Some 163 were built, mainly for Troop Carrier Command, and these had autopilots, could carry external auxiliary fuel tanks, and were provided with some protective armour. They could carry 20 troops in the assault role.

The US Army's equivalent was the H-21C Shawnee, of which 334 were built. This total included 98 for the French army, 10 for the French navy and six for Canada; 32 Shawnees were supplied to West Germany, serving with the army's Heeresfliegerbataillon 300. The H-21C, redesignated CH-21C in July 1962, had an underfuselage sling hook for loads of up to 1814kg. Production deliveries were made between September 1954 and March 1959, later helicopters acquiring the company designation Model 43 when the Piasecki Helicopter Corporation became the Vertol Aircraft Corporation in 1956. The H-21 A and H-21B retrospectively became the Model 42.

Two turboshaft conversions of H-21C airframes were the Model 71 (H-21D), with two General Electric T58 engines first flown in September 1957, and the Model 105 which had two Avco Lycoming T53s. From the latter was designed the Vertol 107 (Boeing Vertol H-46 series).

D.Donald "The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft", 1997

Piasecki H-21

On April 11, 1952, the YH-21 Work Horse — Piasecki's best helicopter yet — took to the air with Len LaVassar and Marty Johnson at the controls. Winner of a USAF competition for an arctic transport helicopter, the new craft looked almost like the HRP-2, but weighed 6630kg fully loaded, more than twice the earlier machine. A 1425hp Wright R-1820 engine (derated in early models to 1150hp) and a 0.9m increase in rotor diameter to 13.4m gave it much better performance than the HRP-2. Structurally, it was a new aircraft.

The company had come up with a winner. The Work Horse could carry fourteen fully equipped troops or an equivalent weight of cargo. Features included a rescue hoist and inflatable donut-shaped floats around its wheels for landings even on marshy tundra. Winterized to support Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar stations far to the north, it was just the aircraft the Air Force had wanted. Extensive cold-weather testing was performed atop Mount Washington, the highest peak in New Hampshire's beautiful White Mountains, as well as in the climate hangar at Eglin Air Force Base.

J.P.Spencer "Whirlybirds: A History of the U.S. Helicopter Pioneers", 1998

The only airworthy Piasecki H-21 gets its first wheel into the air as it departed for Ramona near San Diego

In 1949 the U.S. Air Force ordered eighteen examples of the Piasecki Model PD-22 single-engined, tandem-motor helicopter for evaluation in the SAR and general transport roles. The YH-21 Work Horse, as the type was designated, made its maiden flight in April 1952. The Air Force was quite pleased with the YH-21, and eventually purchased thirty-two production H-21A SAR models and 163 of the more powerful H-21B assault transports.

The Army became aware of the H-21's potential as a medium utility helicopter soon after the type's maiden flight, and in 1952 awarded Piasecki a contract for the production of the H-21C variant. This aircraft retained the H-21B's extensive armor plating and ability to carry two external fuel tanks, but had such additional features as increased troop capacity and a 4000-pound capacity belly sling hook. The Army procured 334 H-21C Shawnees, with deliveries beginning in August 1954. In addition, the Army obtained at least sixteen H-21B aircraft from the USAF; the majority of these machines were ultimately brought up to H-21C standard, and all were known as Shawnees despite their origins as Work Horses. The Army also funded Vertol's development of the XH-21D, which was essentially a standard H-21C whose single piston engine had been replaced by two General Electric T58 shaft turbines. Two H-21Cs were so modified and flight tested in 1957 and 1958, but the variant was not adopted for production. In 1962 the H-21B and H-21C were redesignated as, respectively, the CH-21B and CH-21C.

Despite its rather ungainly appearance the H-21 Shawnee was a very capable and well-liked machine, and the type ultimately secured for itself a unique place in post-World War II Army aviation history. It was a Shawnee dubbed 'Amblin' Annie that made the first non-stop helicopter flight from one coast of the United States to the other, being refuelled in flight from a U-1A Otter. More significantly, the H-21 was the first American military helicopter type to be deployed in appreciable numbers to South Vietnam: the first four Shawnee units arrived in that country between December 1961 and September 1962. Inevitably, perhaps, the H-21 also gained the dubious distinction of being the aircraft in which America's first Vietnam casualties were killed; four Army aviators died in July 1962 when their Shawnee was shot down near the Laotian-Vietnamese border. The machine gun-equipped H-21s used in Vietnam were also, of necessity, the first American military helicopters to be fitted with door-mounted defensive weapons as a matter of course. Several additional aircraft were experimentally fitted with a variety of offensive weaponry and used as interim gunships pending the arrival in Southeast Asia of the first units of armed UH-1 Iroquois in the summer of 1963. The H-21 remained the backbone of the Army's aviation effort in South Vietnam until finally supplanted by the UH-1 in 1964, and most Shawnees were withdrawn from the active inventory within the following year.

S.Harding "U.S.Army Aircraft since 1947", 1990

FACTS AND FIGURES

- A few examples of the civil Piasecki PD-22 (Vertol 44) served with New York Airlines and other carriers.

- TYvo H-21Cs were re-engined with turboshafts, as XH-21Ds.

- Foreign H-21 operators included West Germany, France and Canada.

- Four US aviators killed in an H-21 In July 1962 are recognised by some sources as the first American fatalities in Vietnam.

- The YH-21 prototype for this series made its maiden flight on 11 April 1952.

- A total of 334 of these helicopters was produced for the United States Army.


Photo Gallery 

Piasecki H-21

Piasecki H-21

Piasecki H-21

Piasecki CH-21C Shawnee

Technical data for Piasecki H-21C "Shawnee"

Engine: 1 x Wright R-1820-103 Cyclone radial pistone engine, rated at 1063kW, rotor diameter: 13.41m, length with rotors turning: 26.31m, height: 4.7m, take-off weight: 6668kg, empty weight: 3629kg, max speed: 211km/h, service ceiling: 2360m, range: 644km

Comments1-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100 101-120 121-140 141-160
Larry C. Coppala, e-mail, 07.02.2011reply

I was at Camp Stanley Korea in the 13th Trans & 151st Maint from Mar '61 thru Jun '62. Have lots of photos and names of people in my Unit Group Photos. Please get in touch, and would love to swap photos via email or whatever. P.S. My nickname is "Link".

Jerry Thye, e-mail, 21.02.2011reply

Served with the 65th Transportation Company for about 20 months including the delivery of 25 H-21C to Ft. Wainwright, Fairbanks, AK. 1961-1963. This delivery, on the USS Card of WWII service, passed through the Panama Canal.

Paul Freimann, e-mail, 08.06.2024 Jerry Thye

Also served with 65th transportation co 1965-66 18 months total

reply

robert c schenck, e-mail, 26.02.2011reply

crewed the h 21 c 1956 thru 1963

tom mcalpine, e-mail, 06.03.2011reply

foot eustis to fort richardson alaska 1964-1967,
334yh tran. det. 19th aviation bat.
phasing out h-21 so very few pilots' 19-20 ships & allways about90% ready,
good duty now it's over

Sean Carroll, e-mail, 26.03.2011reply

I have the Quonset Air Museums CH-21C in my backyard for restoration.

Can anyone give me some information on S /N 51-15892.

The Army has given us as much information as they had but there is a lot of information missing.

Anything you wish to share will be appreciated by our Educational Group.

Thanks,

Sean

Project 892, In Honor Of All Those Who Served

Rick Schemel, e-mail, 25.03.2011reply

I was a tech inspector on the H-21 in the the 573rd trans. det. attached to the 33rd Helicopter Co. at Ft. Ord from 1959 to 1961. It was a pleasure to get to know and work with this old girl as well as all the men in our small detchment such as Capt. Stovall, Mr. Saylor, Sgt. Christlieb, Hammerschmidt, Harkin and Blythe. Great memories guys.

Mark Honse, e-mail, 26.03.2011reply

I was trained at FT. Eustis, VA. July 1968 - Nov 1968, for H-19, H-34, H-21. I served with the 18 CHFM, FT Wainright, AK. Jan. 1969 - July 1970. WE had H-21 active till May 1970.

george gray, e-mail, 28.03.2011reply

tRAINED ON THE CH-21 NEVER GOT TO CREW ONE. 1966 CREWED A CH-47A.SERVED IN VIET NAM . TRYING TO GET IMFORMATION ON THE ROTOR SYSTEM ON THE H-21, I AM TOLD THAT ROTOR BLADES WERE WOOD. HELP ME OUT..

Paul Nordan, e-mail, 12.11.2022 george gray

They were wood. Crewed H21 and Chinook.

reply

gino canavari, e-mail, 12.04.2011reply

looking formembers of 8th trans helicopter ft bragg n.c.
from 9 /1956 to 1 /1959 major john sullivan comander and
m /sgt elton drumrite line chief m /sgt calvin burgess
section chief thank yougino

Tom Brushway, e-mail, 14.06.2010reply

Anyone with 80th Trans Det.of the 93rd trans.co. 1958 thru Jan. 1960. Ft. Devens MA. I was an E-5 on a field maint. team, when I got out in Jan 60. Like to find some of the old gang.

alain janson, e-mail, 23.06.2011reply

I was on service in 1958 /1959 in Algeria on a helicopter base in AIN ARNAT GH2 as a translator from english to french of technical manuals as an interpreter to the Vertol engineer vhose name I unfortunately do not recall.I still have good pictures of this famous banana helicopter taken in various situations in AlGERIA.

Bob Jenks, e-mail, 24.07.2011reply

I worked at Felker Field in 1961 to 1962 as ground crew with 65th Transportation Company (light Helicopter) (H21) until I was sent to Korea, Flew in the 21s every chance I had, A couple were fitted with floats,Did all the 21s go to Alaska and Nam,I only saw a couple in Korea and they were at Kimpo AFB.... Everthing else was L-19s and L-20s at A-1

Charles Plumb, e-mail, 17.08.2011reply

I was trained as a powertrain specialist in the US Army 1960 at Ft Eustis, VA. I replaced alot of all three transmissions and balanced a number of rotor heads in H-21's at Ft. Wainwright, Alaska. I flew many times in the 21, one time rescuing a downed 21 crew. I was with the 568th heavy maintenance aviation company 1961 to 1962.

takashi, e-mail, 17.09.2011reply

這可怕的直升機

滾動貨運直升機
皮亞塞茨基直升機製造商
1952年首飛
1967年退休
美國空軍的主要用戶
美國軍隊
法國陸軍航空兵
發達國家從 HRP救助者



1956年,尋求一種方法來使用,在阿爾及利亞戰爭中對地攻擊直升機的作用,法國空軍和法國陸軍航空兵(ALAT集團軍 DE L'航空Lgre漁村)嘗試用武裝的西科斯基S - 55,然後被在服務所取代更有能力皮亞塞茨基 H - 21和西科斯基H - 34直升機。一些法國空軍和陸軍航空H - 21C直升機與武裝隨後固定,向前發射火箭和機槍。甚至有少數的炸彈架,但隨後的測試確定的H - 21C,缺乏可操作性,並表現在對地攻擊的角色需要。而H - 21C是更成功的運兵船,而大多數服務 H - 21Cs最終與伸縮門安裝,如安裝的.50口徑槍。 (12.7毫米)勃朗寧機槍或(前德國)MG 151 /2020毫米降落時使用的防守下火力突擊力量。[1] [2] [3]飛機大砲
雖然 H - 21已經從地面攻擊角色中刪除,評價當時的陸軍軍官表示,其實,類型更容易生存被地面火力擊中多比的西科斯基公司CH - 34,這是假設的後果的位置和CH - 34的油箱建設。到了阿爾及利亞戰爭結束時,部隊攜帶 H - 21C直升機正在使用中的演唱會與 H - 34對地攻擊大型反叛亂行動 HELOS [1] [2] [3]
[編輯]美國集團軍作戰
而H - 21C廣泛看見的美國陸軍服務,主要用於運送部隊和物資的使用。 8月24日,1954年,與在空中加油的美國陸軍 U - 1A水獺提供,H - 21C已知Amblin安妮成為第一架直升機穿越美國的直飛航班。[4]各種實驗援助由陸軍在與一些武裝 Shawnees武裝起來的武裝直升機,H - 21C是根據鼻子彎曲槍,而另一些則與門火砲裝置。其中一個實驗版進行了測試與波音B - 29超級 .50口徑美國本土。遠程安裝在機頭下方砲塔。而H - 21C(後來指定CH - 21C)是越南首次部署於 1961年12月與陸軍的& ...

takashi, e-mail, 17.09.2011reply

這可怕的直升機

滾動貨運直升機
皮亞塞茨基直升機製造商
1952年首飛
1967年退休
美國空軍的主要用戶
美國軍隊
法國陸軍航空兵
發達國家從 HRP救助者



1956年,尋求一種方法來使用,在阿爾及利亞戰爭中對地攻擊直升機的作用,法國空軍和法國陸軍航空兵(ALAT集團軍 DE L'航空Lgre漁村)嘗試用武裝的西科斯基S - 55,然後被在服務所取代更有能力皮亞塞茨基 H - 21和西科斯基H - 34直升機。一些法國空軍和陸軍航空H - 21C直升機與武裝隨後固定,向前發射火箭和機槍。甚至有少數的炸彈架,但隨後的測試確定的H - 21C,缺乏可操作性,並表現在對地攻擊的角色需要。而H - 21C是更成功的運兵船,而大多數服務 H - 21Cs最終與伸縮門安裝,如安裝的.50口徑槍。 (12.7毫米)勃朗寧機槍或(前德國)MG 151 /2020毫米降落時使用的防守下火力突擊力量。[1] [2] [3]飛機大砲
雖然 H - 21已經從地面攻擊角色中刪除,評價當時的陸軍軍官表示,其實,類型更容易生存被地面火力擊中多比的西科斯基公司CH - 34,這是假設的後果的位置和CH - 34的油箱建設。到了阿爾及利亞戰爭結束時,部隊攜帶 H - 21C直升機正在使用中的演唱會與 H - 34對地攻擊大型反叛亂行動 HELOS [1] [2] [3]
[編輯]美國集團軍作戰
而H - 21C廣泛看見的美國陸軍服務,主要用於運送部隊和物資的使用。 8月24日,1954年,與在空中加油的美國陸軍 U - 1A水獺提供,H - 21C已知Amblin安妮成為第一架直升機穿越美國的直飛航班。[4]各種實驗援助由陸軍在與一些武裝 Shawnees武裝起來的武裝直升機,H - 21C是根據鼻子彎曲槍,而另一些則與門火砲裝置。其中一個實驗版進行了測試與波音B - 29超級 .50口徑美國本土。遠程安裝在機頭下方砲塔。而H - 21C(後來指定CH - 21C)是越南首次部署於 1961年12月與陸軍的& ...

Shawn Kirscht, e-mail, 06.11.2011reply

Hi i'm with the Pueblo Aircraft Museum on the restoration team we are working on our H-21 it was in the 20th and 21st helicopter squadrons does anyone have pictures and unit markings of their helicopters? we want to put it back to her original markings.

James Arinella, e-mail, 05.11.2011reply

I was with the 13th trans. lt camp stanly wi jon bu south Korea.1959-1960home of lucifer

Tom Garcia, e-mail, 13.03.2013reply

First flew YH-21 at San Marcos, 1956. Then at Luke AFB when it replaced the H-19. Then Goose Bay. Much later Alaska 1970-71 era. Those must have been about the last USAF ones flying. Crashed one on the side of a mountain up there and the blades were broken up into many little pieces of wood. Some of the hubs were marked YH-21. Blades were rebuilt (overhauled) from time to time over the years by Parson (or Parsons) Boat Co. in Mich. Flew blades up there in C-47 for overhaul and picked up overhauled ones at the same time (for A model birds at Luke.

Paul Garza, e-mail, 13.12.2011reply

Mechanic on H-21 Hill AFB, Utah. Need info on chemicals and hazardous materials that may have been used while maintaing the H-21

oscar brooksby, e-mail, 12.02.2012reply

I was sent Soc Trang as Aircraft Engine Mechanic Nov 1962 to Nov 1963. Was in Sagon when VN Pres Knu was killed. I was on leave in Las Vegas when Prsident Kennedy was assinated. I served with the 80th Detachment 193 Transportation Co. My job was to try to keep 20 H21C in the air with almost no replacement parts. We flew combat support for the ARVN troops. Which means we loaded 20 VN soldiers all in combat gear, Two pilots, a crew cheif and 1 door 30 caliber machine gunner. Every time the VC would hit a village we would send 20 loaded H21s sometimes carring a artillery piece under on a sling. This makes harry take of since the aircraft had to get a run to gain airspeed, sometimes running out of runway before able to get airborne with a canal runnig along side the field.
We lost a lot of Men and Helicopters that year. Many times I had to go on this missions as a gunner, but just as many times I was sent to retreive downed craft which amounted to compete engine changes in the field or repair them to get them able to fly back to base. I would like to hear from any one from the 80th trans during that time.

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