Back Pescara No.3
1923

Pescara helicopter

It is unfortunate that more complete records have evidently not survived of the later Pescara helicopters, for despite their apparent clumsiness they represented for their time an important step forward in helicopter design technology that deserves recognition. The Spanish Marquis Raul Pateras Pescara built his first helicopter in Barcelona in 1919-20. It was a clumsy machine, weighing some 600kg without fuel or pilot and powered by a 45hp Hispano engine. Each of the 2 co-axial rotors had a diameter of 6.40m and was made up of 6 biplane pairs of blades giving a total of 24 lifting surfaces, but the little Hispano was not powerful enough to raise the machine off the ground. A modified form of this aircraft, with a 170hp Le Rhone rotary engine, did just get off the ground in May 1921, but it was far from being a stable or satisfactory design. In 1922 Pescara moved to France, where the No.2 did succeed in rising some 1.5m during tests carried out for the Service Technique de I'Aeronautique.

Pescara's most successful helicopter was the No.3, which was built in 1923 and by January 1924 was capable of making flights of some 10 minutes' duration. The same co-axial rotor system was employed, larger twin rotors each with 4 pairs of blades turning around a 'totem pole' rotor mast. A 180hp Hispano-Suiza engine, for which the Lamblin radiator was situated at the rear of the craft, provided the power. Although a heavy and cumbersome machine the Pescara No.3 was a simple design when compared with its closest contemporary, the Oemichen No.2, and makes an interesting comparison with the Breguet-Dorand of some ten years later. On 18 April 1924 Pescara flew the No.3 at Issy-les-Moulineaux for a distance of 736m, handsomely beating the record set up by the Oemichen only the day before.

The significance of this achievement lay in the fact that Pescara's machine, unlike the Oemichen or any other rotorcraft up to that time, did not rely on conventional propellers rotating in the vertical plane to give the aircraft forward motion. Instead, the pitch of the 16 lifting surfaces could be altered in flight by warping them, and the rotor head could be tilted to give the blades a degree of forward thrust. The speeds thus achieved were extremely modest, but the Pescara No.3 exhibited the first convincing demonstration of the principles of cyclic and collective pitch control. Autorotation of the rotors was also provided for in the event of engine failure.

Reference is made in some quarters to the Pescara No.3F, which was possibly a modification of the No.3 and not a new machine. This appeared in the early part of 1925 and had a 250hp engine, with a cut-down propeller fulfilling a cooling function only. It offered no great improvement over the No.3, and later that year Pescara returned to Spain and entered the motor car industry. He seems to have been discouraged from further serious helicopter development by the emergent success of Cierva with the autogiro, though he was associated with the little French-designed Pouit S-4 later in the 1920s.

K.Munson "Helicopters And Other Rotorcraft Since 1907", 1968

Pescara helicopter

Pescara's No. 3 machine, completed in 1923, used four 7.2m diameter 4-blade biplane rotors and no other propulsion mechanisms: the pitch of the 16 lifting surfaces could be altered in flight by wing warping. This was the first credible use of cyclic and collective pitch control, the essential ingredients of a helicopter. The rotor hub could be tilted for some measure of forward motion, but speed was only about 13km/h. This slow speed was one of the main reasons that the early "helicopters" used auxiliary propellers for forward propulsion. In September 1923, Pescara almost became the first person to complete a 1km circuit, but the machine crashed and was severely damaged. The next spring, four days after Oemichen's first FAI distance record, Pescara doubled it to 736m.

www.vtol.org

Pescara helicopter

Technical data for Pescara No.3

Engine: 1 x Hispano-Suiza rated at 135kW, rotor diameter: 7.20m, take-off weight: 1000kg, empty weight: 850kg, max speed: 13km/h, ceiling: 5180m, range with max payload: 658km

Pescara helicopter

Comments 
Enric-p Schlüter, e-mail, 03.01.2013

Greetings from Barcelona,

My grandmother, that lived and born in Barcelona in 1918, view this helicopter when she was very young. She and his family could see this helicopter trough the windows of his house, very near of Pescara Factory. She said me that they could see this flights very well.

Now, this factory, street and house doesn't exists. Were situated very near of a Barcelona's metropolitan railway station called "Alfonso X"

If you are interested in this question you can read this book:

HISTÒRIA DE L'AVIACIO CATALANA ( 1908-1936 )
(ISBN 10: 8474101441 / ISBN 13: 9788474101447 )
Canudas, Josep. Edicions La Magrana 1983


Enric-p Schlüter Martin
3rd january 2012
Barcelona

polo, e-mail, 16.06.2011

i saw film clips of that helicopter

hou, e-mail, 08.06.2010

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Bernd Brincken, e-mail, 29.12.2008

The german Bundesarchiv has recently opened its archive to Wikipedia and has published also this picture:
http://tinyurl.com/8q6tk7

My impression is it shows the Pescara No.3, wheels, rotors and frame look the same. The pic is claimed to be from 1931 though. Any comments are welcome (best on the commons discussion page).
// Bernd

Christian de Pescara (Pateras Pescara de, e-mail, 15.10.2008

1) we find in No. 46 "Pescara stopable Rotor Wing"
The picture of this model and its description is in the patent GB 179,176
It is also page 428 of Air France with the title "Model of hélicoplan PESCARA.
projected current helicopters. "
The basket sustentables Gate 2 propeller blades to 2 thick and variable impact.
The aircraft is a helicopter.
The engine can power by a second clutch propelling a propeller at the rear of the fuselage.
The device must pass flight lift helicopter lift airplane propellers in disengaging levitation
and leaving crazy turn on their axis.
2) In the "North America"
385 Pescara.

According pictures there are different front fascia to No. 1 in Spain.
The No. 2 is the Barcelona (Spain) became the type 2R (France, 1922 -1923) by engine change so.
The No. 3 would be the camera record with two versions of the radiator. This would be the type 2F (France ,1923-1924)
The No. 4 is tested in 1925. This would be the type 3F (France)
The No. 5 would be the 4S. (Spain, 1930 -1935) (Probably for my Father the No. 1 and No. 2 are one)
Christian de Pescara (ESIEE, 3AF, AAMA, AAMALAT, Flying in France) son of the Marquis Pateras-Pescara (1890 - 1966)
Français » Anglais Traduire
Proposer une meilleure traduction

Merci de votre contribution à Google Traduction.Nous tiendrons compte de votre suggestion pour améliorer la qualité des traductions lors des futures mises à jour de notre système. 1) we find in No. 46 "Pescara stopable Rotor Wing"
The picture of this model and its description is in the patent GB 179,176
It is also page 428 of Air France with the title "Model of hélicoplan PESCARA.
projected current helicopters. "
The basket sustentables Gate 2 propeller blades to 2 thick and variable impact.
The aircraft is a helicopter.
The engine can power by a second clutch propelling a propeller at the rear of the fuselage.
The device must pass flight lift helicopter lift airplane propellers in disengaging levitation
and leaving crazy turn on their axis.
2) In the "North America"
385 Pescara.

According pictures there are different front fascia to No. 1 in Spain.
The No. 2 is the Barcelona (Spain) became the type 2R (France, 1922 -1923) by engine change so.
The No. 3 would be the camera record with two versions of the radiator. This would be the type 2F (France ,1923-1924)
The No. 4 is tested in 1925. This would be the type 3F (France)
The No. 5 would be the 4S. (Spain, 1930 -1935) (Probably for my Father the No. 1 and No. 2 are one)
Christian de Pescara (ESIEE, 3AF, AAMA, AAMALAT, Flying in France) son of the Marquis Pateras-Pescara (1890 - 1966)



Traduction :Français » Anglais

jack, e-mail, 09.05.2008

i saw film clips of that helicopter

C. de Pescara fils de Raul Pateras Pesca, e-mail, 25.08.2007

I am Christian Pateras Pescara de Castelluccio'son. Raul Pateras pescara de Castelluccio (1890 - 1966 )
Do you know : www.pateras-pescara.net. If you want a picture for your SITE ! You ask me .
I am a Professional Engineer.
In the early 1919, Marquis Raul Pateras Pescar, an Argentinian working in Europe, demonstrated one of the first successful applications of cyclic pitch. His coaxial, contra-rotating, biplane rotors were able to be warped to cyclically increase and decrease the lift they produced; and the rotor hub could also tilt, both allowing the aircraft to move laterally without a separate propeller to push or pull it. Pescara is also credited with demonstrating the principle of "Autorotation", the method by which helicopters land safely after engine failure. By January 1924, Pescara's helicopter No. 3 was capable of flights up to 10 minutes.
Regards.

de Pescara, e-mail, 13.08.2007

Bonjour,
J'apprécie votre texte objectif, qui démontre l'originalité des hélicoptères purs Pescara. En réalité, les appareils de mon Père correspondent à la définition de l'époque (Exemple Sciences et Voyages de 1922) La définition du mot hélicoptère dans le Larousse de 1922 est illustrée par l'hélicoptère de 1919 de Barcelone. Il est évident pour moi, ingénieur, que le n°2 de M. E. Oehmichen ne répond pas à la définition. La traduction française de votre texte par Google! Pour les données techniques du n°3, la traduction donne des chiffres mille fois supérieur pour les distances. Attention aux virgules.Envoyez-moi une adresse E-mail pour vous faire parvenir des photos que vous pourrez publier.
Le chauvinisme français n'est pas encore mort. L'UFh est restrictive pour la réussite technique de mon Père Argentin. Il a son Timbre

Fils du Marquis, 04.05.2007

Allez sur le site:www.pateras-pescara.net
salutations de Christian de Pescara (WIKIPEDIA.fr)

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